References and Works Cited: Section 230 of the CDA

“47 USC 230.” Tech Law Journal Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 July 2010. <;.

ACLU v. Reno,. LexisNexis Academic. 929 F. Supp. 824; 1996 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 7919; 4 Comm. Reb. (P & F) 590 (Order Granting Preliminary Injunction). 11 June 1996. Print. (ACLU and others said CDA violated the First Amendment right to free speech.)

AP. “Web Warnings: Sites Extol, Slam Professors.” CNN, 19 Feb. 2003. Web. 26 May 2006.

Austin v. Crystal Tech. 211 Ariz. 569; 125 P.3d 389; 205 Ariz. App. LEXIS 168; 467 Ariz. Adv. Rep. 33. N.d. Print. (Superior Court’s rulings for defendant affirmed based on Sect. 230 of the CDA.)

Bangeman, Eric. “Faulty IP Address Data Leads to Shaq Attack on Innocent Family (updated).” Ars Technica. N.p., 24 Oct. 2006. Web. 21 May 2007. . ISP data is not always accurate.

Barrett Et Al, v. Rosenthal,. Get Citation. 10 Nov. 2006. Print. “This appears to be the first published case in which section 230 immunity has been involked by an indvidiual who had no supervisory role in the operation of the Internet site where allegedly defamatory material appeared, and who thus was clearly not a provider of an “‘Interactive computer service” under the broad definition provided in the CDA…..P 6. The court pointed out the issue with the word “user.” p. 6 (Court reversed appeal’s court judgement for defendant)

Batzel v. Robert. LexisNexis Academic. 333 F.3d 1018; 2003 U.S. App. LEXIS 12736; Cal. Daily Op. Service 5465. 24 June 2003. Print. (ISP immunity granted to Website pursuant to Sect. 230.)

Batzel v. Smith. 351 F.3d 904; 2003 U.S. App. LEXIS 24304; 2003 Cal. KDaily Op. Service 10363; 2003 Daily Journal DAR 13097 (Petition Denied). 3 Dec. 2003. Print. (Dissenting opinion by Judge Gould questions Congress’s intent.)

Bell, David, and Barbara M. Kennedy. The Cybercultures Reader. London: Routledge, 2000. Print. (get 2007 edition)

Blumenthal v. Drudge, 146 F.R.D. 236, 1999 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 7045, 52 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. (Callaghan) 149, 27 Media L. Rep. 2004. N.d. Print. AOL was originally named a defendant in the suit. Court dismissed AOL because of Section 230 of the CDA. Court said the Blumenthals could sue Matt Drudge for defamation. This is a good example of the difference between an ISP and a poster who was identified.

Boen, Hannah. “Rate My Professor Web Site Allows Students to Rate Professors by ‘hotness’ and Quality.” Daily Toreador, Student Newspaper of Texas Tech University, 02 Feb. 2009. Web. 13 May 2009.

Branscomb, Anne Wells. “Anonymity, Autonomy, and Accountability: Challenges to the First Amendment in Cyberspaces.” The Yale Law Journal 104.7 (May, 1995): 1639-679. JSTOR. Web. 14 June 2006.

Brunswick, Mark, and Dane Smith. “Facing Suit, Anonymous Blogger Lifts His Mask.” [Minneapolis – St. Paul] 05 Jan. 2006: n. pag. Minneapolis Star Tribune. Web. 06 June 2010. <;.

Cannon, Robert. “The Legislative History of Senator Exon’s Communications Decency Act: Regulating Barbaians on the Information Superhighway.” Indiana University Law. Indiana University Law, n.d. Web. 26 June 2007. fclj/pubs/v49/no1/cannon.html>.

Carnevale, Dan. “U. of Saskatchewan Fires Tenured Professor Assused of Maligning Colleagues on RateMyProfessors Web Site.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 10 Mar. 2006, Vol. 52, No. 27 ed.: 28. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 17 Aug. 2006.

Charles, Mandel. “ Gets Mixed Marks: Postings Are Anonymous; Some Teachers Are Upset by Site’s Lack of Accountability.” CanWest Interactive [Montreal, Canada] 03 Oct. 2005, Final ed., News sec.: A15. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 17 Aug. 2005.

Citron, Danielle Keats. “Civil Rights in Our Information Age.” The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy, and Reputation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2010. N. pag. Print.

CNN. “2006 CNN Interview.” Interview. Web log post. Michael Hussey, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2006.

Crosbie, Vin. “Time to Get Tough: Managing Anonymous Reader Comments.” OJR: The Online Journalism Review. N.p., 26 Jan. 2006. Web. 06 June 2010. . “Publishing anonymous, unvetted, and unreviewed commentary online is hugely divergent from the policies of those publications’ print editions. It’s a different kettle of fish, one that can stink for the publishers. Indeed, those publishers and their new-media managers are being reckless. And if you think I’ve used too strong a word, poll newspaper libel lawyers and libel insurers.”

Cubby v. Compuserve, 776 F. Supp. 135: 1991 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 155545: 19 Media L. Rep. 1523. N.d. Print. This is a first major defamation case prior to 230. Compuserve made no claim to monitor or filter distasteful websites, therefore was not liable for defamatory statements of users on its service.

Davies, Martin, Joe Hirschbert, Jenny Lye, Carol Johnson, and Ian McDonald. “Is It Your Fault? Influences on Student Evaluations of Teaching in Tertiary Institutions.” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication Article 9 10.3 (n.d.): n. pag. Indiana University. Web. 07 Mar. 2009. . Article points out that student evaluations are used for “administrative decision-making. (p. 1) Get better citation.

Dennis, Regina. “Students Likely to Give Good-looking Professors Better Reviews.” The Daily Texan Online [Austin] 05 May 2006: n. pag. The Daily Texan Online. University of Texas at Austin. Web. 02 Sept. 2009. . Article was updated 1/9/09 but doesn’t appear to be any changes.

Derry, J.O. “Can Student’s Ratings of Instruction Serve Rival Purposes?” The Journal of Higher Education 50.1 (Jan.-Feb. 1979): 79-88. Print.

Edelman. 2004 Edleman Fifth Annual Trust Barometer, Study of Opinion Leaders. Rep. New York City: Edelman, 2004. Print.

“Editorial:” The Daily Free Press, Boston University Student Newspaper, 14 Nov. 2006. Web. 28 Nov. 2006.

“E-mail Altercation; Student, You’re Lazy! Professor, You’re Zero!” Los Angeles Times [Los Angeles] 26 Feb. 2006, Home ed., Editorial Pages sec.: 2. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 17 Aug. 2006.

Entman, Robert M. “How the Media Affect What People Think: An Information Processing Approach.” The Journal of Politics 51.2 (May, 1989): 347-70. JSTOR. Web. 16 Feb. 2009.

Epstein, David. “‘Hotness and Quality.” Inside Higher Ed, 08 May 2006. Web. 08 Aug. 2006. <www://>.

Felton, James, John Mitchell, and Michael Stinson, eds. “WEB-BASED STUDENT EVALUATIONS OF PROFESSORS: THE RELATIONS BETWEEN PERCEIVED QUALITY, EASINESS, AND SEXINESS.” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 29.1 (2004): 91-108. Print. Check Pages

Gagnon, Geoffrey. “Graded on the Curves.” Boston Magazine, Sept. 2006. Web.

Granick, Jennifer. “Don’t Let Fear Kill Muni Wi-Fi.” Wired News. N.p., 12 Oct. 2005. Web. 08 Aug. 2006. <,69175-0.html&gt;.

Hawkins, Asher. “Philadelphia Judge Tosses Defamation Suit Against Web Site.” N.p., 12 June 2006. Web. 24 May 2007.

In Re Richard L. Baxter. 2001 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 26001. 20 Dec. 2001. Print. ISP must reveal identities of John Doe defendants

“Internet Adoption | Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project-Table.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2009. <;.

“Internet Growth Statistics – Global VillageOnline.” Internet Usage World Stats – Internet and PopulationStatistics. Miniwatts Marking Group, n.d. Web. 15 July 2010. .

“Internet Use Triples in Decade, Census Bureau Reports.” Newsroom. U.S. Census Bureau, 03 June 2009. Web. 02 Sept. 2009.

“Issue Framing Effects on.” (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

“John Doe Anonymity.” Chilling Effects. Stanford Center for Internet & Society, n.d. Web. 06 June 2010. <;. Supports anonymity online. Good information on subpoenas for John Doe lawsuits.

Jones, Steven G. Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-mediated Communication and Community. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1998. Print.

Kage, Ben. “Courts Rule in Favor of Bloggers, Web Publishers Who Post Opinions of Independent Authors.” Independent News on Natural Health, Nutrition and More., 21 Nov. 2006. Web. 09 July 2007. <;.

Kage, Ben. “Courts Rule in Favor of Bloggers, Web Publishers Who Post Opinions of Independent Authors.” N.p., 21 Nov. 2006. Web. 24 May 2007. <;.

Kenneth. “” N.p., n.d. Web.

Kesmodel, David. “As Angry Patients Vent Online, Doctors Sue to Silence Them.” The Wall Street Journal Online. The Wall Street Journal, 14 Sept. 2005. Web. 08 Oct. 2006. <;.

Koehn, Daryl. “The Nature of and Conditions for Online Trust.” Journal of Business Ethics Business Ethics in the Global Knowledge Economy 43.1/2 (March, 2003): 3-19. JSTOR/Sprinter. Web. 11 Apr. 2009. .

Lane, Bernard. “And Don’t Hold Back on the Vitriol.” The Australian 01 Feb. 2006, All-round Country ed., Features; Higher Education sec.: 33. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 17 Aug. 2006. Professor admits making comments on RMP as a “test.”

Langdon, Robert T. “The Communications Decency Act S 230: Make Sense? Or Nonsense? A Private Person’s Inability to Recover If Defamed in Cyberspace.” St. John’s Law Review 73.829 (Summer, 1999): 1-25. Lexis Nexis Academic. Web. 06 Jan. 2007.

Langdon, Robert T. “A Private Person’s Inability to Recover If Defamed in Cyberspace.” St. John’s Law Review 73.829 (1999): n. pag. Print. N.p., 07 June 2010. Web. 07 June 2010. <;.

Ledingham, John A., and Stephen D. Bruning. Public Relations as Relationship Management: A Relational Approach to the Study and Practice of Public Relations. Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000. Print.

Lenhart, Research Specialist, Amanda, Deborah Fallows, Senior Research Fellow, and John Horrigan, Senior Research Specialist. “Content Creation Online | Pew Internet & American Life Project.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Feb. 2004. Web. 15 July 2010. <;.

Lenhart, Research Specialist, Amanda, John Horrigan, Senior Research Specialist, and Deborah Fallows, Senior Research Fellow. Content Creation Online. Rep. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2004. Web.

Levine, Noah. “Establishing Legal Accountability for Anonymous Commuication in Cyberspace.” Columbia Law Review 96.6 (Oct., 1996): 1526-572. JSTOR. Web. 14 June 2006.

Levmore, Saul X., and Martha Craven Nussbaum. Introduction. The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy, and Reputation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2010. N. pag. Print.

Lidsky, Lyrisa Barnett. “Silencing John Doe: Defamation & Discourse in Cyberspace.” Duke Law Journal 49.4 (Feb., 2000): 855-946. JSTOR. Web. 13 Feb. 2006.

Logan, David A. “Libel Law in the Trenches: Reflections on Current Data on Libel Litigation.” Virginia Law Review 87.3 (May, 2001): 503-29. JSTOR. Web. 29 Apr. 2006.

Lynch, Dan. “Doctors Drop Slander Suit Against Disgruntled Patient’s Web Site.” ALM, 08 Aug. 2005. Web.

Mann, Charles. “Regulating Cyberspace.” Science ns 268.5211 (May 5, 1995): 628-29. JSTOR. Web. 29 Apr. 2006. This early article has to do with the problem of IP addresses and legal issues of competators, for instance, buying IP addresses of their competition. However, the article warns of other “dangers” such as libel, obscenity statues and international and interstate commerce regulations.

Mark, Roy. “Privacy Groups Hit ISP Data Storage Bill –” InternetNews Realtime News for IT Managers. SemanticWeb, 15 Feb. 2007. Web. 03 July 2007. . “According to the bill (H.R. 837), ISPs would be required to retain, at a minimum, subscriber names, addresses, telephone numbers and Internet protocol addresses to ‘permit compliance with court orders that they may require production of such information.’ The DOJ would determine the length of time the data must be retained. Most ISPs currently retain minimum customer data for six months or less. Gonzales has said he favors at least a two-year retention requirement.”

McCullagh, Declan. “Court: EBay’s off the Hook over Feedback.” C/net C Net, 09 Feb. 2004. Web. 12 Aug. 2006. <;.

McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Commission. 514 US 334 US Supreme Court, 19 April 1995. N.d. Print.

McKie, Gladys. “New Online Rating Site Could Put Lawyers on Hot Seat.” Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly [Massachusetts and Rhode Island] 24 July 2006, Commentary sec.: n. pag. Print.

Montell, Gabriela. “RateMyProfessors.” Home – The Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 04 May 2006. Web. 15 July 2010. <,17560.0.html&gt;.

Nelson, Thomas E., and Zoe M. Oxley. “Issue Framing Effects on Belief Importance and Opinion.” The Journal of Politics 61.4 (Nov., 1999): 1040-067. JSTOR. Web. 15 Feb. 2005. Belief-based model = Communication uses persuaston to “reverse” one’s beliefs. Useful when thinking about regulation changes.

“Network Neutrality Fact Sheet-Common Cause.” Common Cause-Common Cause. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2010. <;.

Neuman, W. Russell. “The Threshold of Public Attention.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 54.2 (Summer, 1990): 159-76. JSTOR. Web. 4 Nov. 2006.

New York Times v. Sullivan. U.S. Supreme Court. March 9, 1964 (376 U.S. 254). N.d. Print.

Otto, James, Douglas Sanford, and William Wagner. “Analysis of Online Student Ratings of University Faculty.” Journal College Taching & Learning 2.6 (June 2005): 25-30. Web.

Parker, Laura. “Court Says Blogs Can’t Be Sued for Postings.” USA Today. N.p., 21 Nov. 2006. Web. 14 Jan. 2009. <;.

Parker, Laura. “Jury Awards $11.3M over Defamatory Internet Posts.” USA Today 11 Oct. 2006, Nation sec.: n. pag. USA Today. Web.

Petrie, Sean J. “Indecent Proposals: How Each Branch of the Federal Government Overstepped Its Institutional Authority in the Development of Internet Obscenity Law.” Stanford Law Review 49.3 (Feb., 1997): 637-65. Web. 29 June 2007. <;.

Pfeiffer, Sacha. “Ratings Sites Flourish behind a Veil of Anonymity.” The Boston Globe 20 Sept. 2006: 1+. Print.

Pilotman, John. “Online Professor Ratings.” Web log post. ProfsBlawg. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2006.

“Privacy Statement.” RateMyProfessor. MTVu, n.d. Web.

“Profs Agree to Dismiss Suit Against “Teacher Review” Webmaster.” ACLU News. ACLU, Nov.-Dec. 2000. Web. 12 Aug. 2006. <;.

“Rate My Professor Issues.” Home – The Chronicle of Higher Education-Forum. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 2007. Web. 15 July 2010. <,32676.0.html&gt;.

“Rate My Professors.” Web log comment., Apr. 2004. Web. 09 May 2006.

“RateMds.” Find a Doctor – Doctor Reviews and Ratings – Doctor Vitals – N.p., n.d. Web. 07 June 2010. <;.

“RateMyProfessors.” Rate My Professors – Find and Rate Your Professor, Campus and More – MTV University, n.d. Web. 07 June 2010. <;.

“Rater Guidelines –” Rate My Professors – Find and Rate Your Professor, Campus and More – MTVu, n.d. Web. 15 July 2010. .

“Reputation Management – SEO Program to Manage Your Online Reputation.” SEO Consultants – Professional Search Engine Optimization, Writers, Translators and Marketing Services. Happy Guy Marketing, n.d. Web. 15 July 2010. <;.

Restatement (Second) of Torts, § 566, 565, 570, 571, 572, and 573. N.p.: American Law Institute, n.d. N. pag. Print.

“ The Community Website of Revere, Massachusetts.” Community Page. N.p., 24 May 2008. Web. 28 May 2008. <;.

Richards, Robert D. “Sex, Lies, and the Internet: Balancing First Amendment Interests, Reputational Harm, and Privacy in the Age of Blogs and Social Networking.” First Amendment Law Review 8.176 (Fall 2009): 1-38. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 10 June 2009.

Richards, Robert D. “Sex, Lies, and the Internet: Balancing First Amendment Interests, Reputtional Harm, and Privacy in the Age of Blogs and Social Networking.” First Amendment Law Review 8.176 (Fall, 2009): 1-38. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 10 June 2009. Good overview of issue. Focuses on the potential of courts to shift away from 230. Mentions RMP

Robertson, Campbell. “Everybody’s a Critic.” The New York Times [New York] 23 Apr. 2006, Late Edition-Final ed., 4A; Column1; Education Life Supplement; Revisiting RateMyProfessors sec.: 14. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 17 Aug. 2006. Also includes a comparison of a few rating sites.

RT@ChemicalKidB. “RateMyProfessors (ratemyprofessor) on Twitter.” Twitter. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 July 2010. <;.

Rustad, Michael L., and Thomas H. Koenig. “Harmonizing Cybertort Law for Europe and America.” The Journal of High Technology Law Thomas F. Lambert Jr., Tort Law Conference Symposium Issue 5.1 (2005): 13-59. Print. Exposees issues of section 230 and looks at notification and take-down policy, as in Eruope.

Rustad, Michael L., and Thomas H. Koenig. “The Tort of Negligent Enablement of Cybercrime.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 20.4 (Fall, 2005): 1553-611. Print.

Scardino, Daniel. “Liberty and Defamation.” Communications Lawyer (Fall 2002): 3-5. Web. Need to get additional publication information.

Schruers, Matthew. “The History and Economics of ISP Liability for Third Party Content.” Virginia Law Review 88.205 (March, 2002): n. pag. LexisNexis(TM) Adademic. LexisNexis. Web. 06 Jan. 2007. .

“Separate but Equal (Opinion Pages Explained).” The Boston Globe, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2007. <;.

Sheehan, Daniel S. “ON the Invalidity of Student Ratings for Administrative Personnel Decisions.” The Journal of Higher Education 48.6 (Nov.-Dec., 1975): 687-700. JSTOR. Web. 01 June 2008. Prior Internet: talks about paper and pencil evaluations and their use for administrative personnel decisions.

Sheridan, David R. “Zeran v. AOL Andthe Effect of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act Upon Liability for Defamation on the Internet.” Albany Law Review 61.147 (1997): 1-30. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 05 July 2007.

Solove, Daniel J. The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on the Internet. New Haven: Yale UP, 2007. Print.

Solove, Daniel J. “Speech, Privacy, and Reputation on the Internet.” The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy, and Reputation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2010. N. pag. Print.

“SPLC Legal Brief, Libel Law.” Student Press Law Center. Student Press Law Center, 2001. Web. 07 June 2010. <;.

Steinberg, Jacques. “As Forbes Sees It, West Point Beats Princeton (and Harvard, Too).” The New York Times, The Choice. The New York Times, 06 Aug. 2009. Web. 25 Oct. 2009. . Forbes Magazine’s Second Annual College Rankings. Hired Center for College Affordability and Productivity to rank colleges. Used RMP. Based 25 percent rankings on RMP.

Strand, Eric. “Let’s Sue.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 28 July 2006, Vol. 52, No. 47 ed., Chronicle Careers sec.: 1. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 15 Jan. 2007.

Stratton Oakmont v. Prodigy, 1995 N.Y. Misc. LEXIS 712; 24 Media L. Rep. 1126. N.d. Print. Unlike Compuserve, Prodigy touted itself as “family friendly” and stated they would take down objectionable sites. They were found liable. This posed a problem for ISPs. It discouraged them from creating policies to monitor sites.

Stripling, Jack. “How Would You Rate Your Professor? AU Students Flock to Web Site to Judge Their Professors.” Opeliko & Auburn University Newspaper, 19 July 2005. Web. 21 May 2007.

Sullivan, Scott. “Talk Isn’t Always Cheap.” Fredrikson & Byron. PA. N.p., Sept. 2000. Web. 06 Aug. 2006. <;. The dangers of libelous statements to the stock market.

Sunstein, Cass R. “The First Amendment in Cyberspace.” The Yale Law Journal 104.7 (May 1993): 1757-804. Print.

Talley v. California. 362 U.S. 60. N.d. Print.

“Terms of Use: –” Comcast High-Speed Internet Acceptable Use Policy. Comcast, n.d. Web. 07 Aug. 2006. <;.

Title 47, Protection for Private Blocking and Screening of Offensive Material, § Chapter 5-230 (Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Insitute 1997). Print.

“User Privacy for ISPs and Accidental ISPs.” Electronic Frontier Foundation | Defending Freedom in the Digital World. EFF, n.d. Web. 07 June 2010. . Need to get additional site information.

Vock, Douglas W. “The Internet and the First Amendment.” The Modern Law Review 61.3 (May 1998): 414-21. Print.

“Web Form Submission: Other.” Message to the author. 06 Aug. 2006. E-mail. From Comcast retains IP address assignment information for 180 days.

Weeks, Linton. “The Tangled Web of Libel Law; Suitk Raises Questions of AOL’s Function.” The Washington Post 30 Aug. 1997: A01. Print.

Westhues, Kenneth. “” The Record, Kitchener, Ontario, 07 Sept. 2004. Web. 02 Sept. 2009. <;.

“Who’s Online – Internet Demographics | Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project-Table.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Pew Internet & American Life Project, 06 Jan. 2010. Web. 06 May 2010. <;.

Zeran v. AOL, 958 F. Supp. 1124; 1997 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3429; 25 Media L. Rep. 1609. N.d. Print. Precedent-setting case. Court held that under the new Section 230 of the CDA, AOL was not liable for defamatory statements from third party poster.


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